An article by Chalkbeat states that not only is lead’s health impact great, but that there is something that can be done about it! The article refers to a recent study composed by Stephen B. Billings and Kevin T Schnepel which was posted in the peer-reviewed American Economic Journal for Applied Economics. “Life After Lead: Effects of Early Interventions for Children Exposed to Lead” is a study that was conducted in Charlotte, NC that estimates that early life interventions such as lead remediation and other medical attentions will reduce the cognitive and behavioral effects that lead has on children. (Billings, Stephen B., and Kevin T. Schnepel. 2018.)  The Chalkbeat article highlights this study and emphasizes that factors outside of school can profoundly influence academic outcomes. (Barnum, Matt) The children in the study were given many treatments to combat the effects that lead would have on their cognitive and behavioral abilities. For example, depending on the severity of the case, children were given someone who could focus on reducing the child’s exposure to lead, their health was constantly monitored, they were provided with environmental and nutritional information, and a doctor’s evaluation. 




Billings, Stephen B., and Kevin T. Schnepel. 2018. “Life after Lead: Effects of Early Interventions for Children Exposed to Lead.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics10 (3): 315-44.

Barnum, Matt. “Lead Hurts Kids, Including Their Ability to Learn. But New Research Shows Cities Can Help.” Chalkbeat, 28 June 2018,